What is common between Penguins and Polar Bears? The first thing which comes to my mind is that both start with the letter “P”. Putting more thought to answer the question Penguins and Polar Bears are the undisputed kings of their habitat. Penguins roam unchallenged in the vast swathes of the Antarctic and Polar Bear is the King Supreme of the Arctic of course not discounting their ability to adapt to the extreme cold of their habitat. Penguins live in large groups whereas Polar Bears are confirmed Solitary Creatures. Polar Bears roam the icy landscape of Arctic all alone and its survival is just about food sleep and procreation. Yes they do procreate but maintain their solitary status intact. At times in fight for survival male polar bears might get into fights with other male Polar bears. It’s nice to live like a Polar Bear as they have no rules of a society to adhere to. Do Humans have such a choice yes if a man decides to live in a solitary Island all by himself? But Humans live in complex societies where they are documented right from the day one they enter the world. Birth Certificate? It’s because Human society has evolved over the ages where humans have conceded some of their natural rights to the “STATE” in exchange for some guaranteed rights. That’s Social Contract theory for dummies in a nutshell. Looks like I almost ended the topic even before starting it.
Not really. What is Social Contract theory. In moral and political philosophy, the social contract or political contract is a theory or model, originating during the Age of Enlightenment that typically addresses the questions of the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual. Though the Social Contract theory was cemented around seventeenth century the discussion of the role of the state in an individual’s life has been going on since the inception of Human Civilization. Not sure of the historical time line but the first documented discussions on the role of the state, nature of justice and the nature of government in the western world were recorded in Plato’s Republic and Socrates book Crito. Socrates argued that adult citizens have a choice to stay under the laws of the society or leave. Plato, in The Republic, argued that just behavior is in a person’s own best self-interest since persons cannot practice injustice with no fear of punishment. These discussions laid some ground work for the rule of the law and types of governments and similar concepts were explored in the works of Indian political philosophy in Chanakya’s Arthashastra and Manus Manusmriti. Before taking this discussion forward I have to introduce the term State of Nature. Continue reading Political Philosophy And Role Of Government, State Of Nature vs. Natural Rights. Thomas Hobbes Leviathan and John Locke’s Social Contract Theory.