Genetic Haplo Groups Mitochondrial Eve And Human Migration. Out of Africa And Aryan Migration Theories And Cross Race Effect.

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Travelling in a subway in New York gives us a peek view to different cross sections of the society and people of different ethnic backgrounds on a daily basis. As we take different routes which pass through different enclaves you see people of different ethnicities entering and exiting the automated doors of the compartment. Now talking specifically of Queens and Brooklyn the two boroughs of New York we get to experience the diversity of humanity in all its forms. I myself a New Yorker have seen enough of humanity in its varying genetic diversity in and around New York known for its racial diversity and can confidently say which part of the world a person is from with a fair degree of precision by looking at a person’s facial features or listening to their language and do not suffer from a cross rate effect. The cross-race effect also called cross-race bias, other-race bias or own-race bias refers to the tendency to more easily recognize members of one’s own race. The more you are exposed to cultures apart from your own culture lesser you suffer from the cross race effect.

Talking about the Racial and Genetic diversity of New York my interest in genetics was triggered by a chance program which I stumbled upon on TV channel a few years back which tracks the ancestry of a group of people in a park in Queens New York and the fact that Queens was chosen itself talks for the genetic diversity of the population in Queens. Of course now a days there are variants of this program on TV where famous celebrities are invited and their ancestry revealed through a series of historical data, archives and a combination of DNA testing. But what clues DNA testing provide for one’s ancestry. That’s where things get a bit interesting. Sorry things get a bit technical here and I need to introduce some genetic jargon to take this discussion further.

In human genetics, a human mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. Haplogroups are used to represent the major branch points on the mitochondrial phylogenetic tree. Understanding the evolutionary path of the female lineage has helped population geneticists trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and the subsequent spread around the globe. The letter names of the Haplogroups not just mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups run from A to Z. As Haplogroups were named in the order of their discovery, they do not reflect the actual genetic relationships. The hypothetical woman at the root of all these groups is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for all currently living humans. She is commonly called Mitochondrial Eve.

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Jack Of All Trades And Master of None Vs. Jack Of All Trades And Master of One Vs. Jack Of One Trade. What Type Of Jack Are You?

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Long ago I was posed a question. Do you think Life offers you so many choices? I mean the question was asked form a career point of you where the implicit suggestion the person who posed me that question was making was its better to stay focused on continuing in a current path than think of any alternative career paths. That’s really up to debate as we are free to change our career path any time we want and do what we wish to pursue but the society we live in puts a premium and rewards those people who stay focused and continue to tread on the same career path than those who continuously change lanes and move on to other career paths. This is not to say that success eludes those people who change directions but once they have found success after changing lanes so many times it’s hard to imagine they would continue to change lanes in their career path well there are all ways exceptions to the rule. But why? I will try to answer this question by asking another question.

What are the chances that any of us would have a job whose job description would be like this?

Monday: Work as a Physician in a ER facility in a hospital

Tuesday: Work as a Civil Engineer at a Multi Storied Construction Site

Wednesday: Teach Music at a Music college

Thursday: Work as a Master Chef in a Restaurant

Friday: Work as a Cop in the city of New York.

Well that’s heck of a job description. If someone were to advertise for such a job would any one even come close to the skill set required for the job advertised. Very Very unlikely. Why? This is because the complex society which we live in only expects us to be good enough to do a specific job or two but not good enough to do a different type of job every other day in our life. I tell you life cannot be more monotonous than that.

How did we come to this point where society rewards us if we are just good at one trade? Heard of Division of Labor. Yes that is the Phrase and the key to this article. Adam Smith’s considered the father of Economics argued for Division of Labor in his book An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations and saw the splitting of tasks as a key to economic progress by providing a cheaper and more efficient means of producing goods. Let me also share some other quotes by popular philosophers of their times.

Continue reading Jack Of All Trades And Master of None Vs. Jack Of All Trades And Master of One Vs. Jack Of One Trade. What Type Of Jack Are You?